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Py学习  »  Python

利用Python的dis反汇编提取代码对象部分信息

山石网科安全技术研究院 • 1 月前 • 38 次点击  
CTF比赛中,Reverse方向经常能遇见一种(可能是唯一一种)只给文本附件的题目,这种题目基本是靠人工阅读理清逻辑、并解出藏在其中的flag,费时费力又不难,因此广受各位出题人的喜爱。
这种题目就是经典的Python字节码文本(通常使用Python自带的dis输出)题,常作为各种比赛的签到题出现。
本文开发了一种手撕字节码工具,从Python的dis反汇编中提取出代码对象所需的信息,并结合xasm工具(https://github.com/rocky/python-xasm/tree/master/xasm)将字节码文本恢复为pyc,从而可以使用成熟的pyc反编译工具(如decompyle3/uncompyle6/pycdc等)获得字节码文本的Python源码。
工具已开源至github:https://github.com/c10udlnk/dis2xasm

手撕字节码

xasm输入的文本格式

PyCodeObject对象的属性在Python代码保护技术及其破解中有介绍,这里针对xasm所需的必要信息进行提取。
经过测试,xasm所需的输入格式如下:

这些信息也是xasm必要的信息,如果缺失会直接导致反编译程序报错退出;其余信息如文件名、firstlineno等为非必要信息,缺失可能导致恢复出的pyc信息有遗漏、进而导致反编译结果不够准确,但测试下来也差别不大。
xasm目前仅支持3.9及以下版本的字节码的汇编,故该工具主要也是针对这些版本的字节码进行信息提取,暂未适配3.10+版本中新增的字节码特性。

dis反汇编输出的文本格式

而Python自带的dis反汇编输出会剔除很多信息,只有主体的字节码部分,主打一个给人类阅读,不在乎机器能否解析,这也是很多出题人喜欢考它的原因。
Python 3.7+版本的dis新增了_disassemble_recursive(),可以递归反汇编co_consts中的代码对象,因此题目通常使用Python 3.7+版本的python3 -m dis temp.py反汇编整个文件的输出作为文本附件。与上文同一个函数,dis的输出如下:

第一行"Disassembly of..."中包含了该函数的函数名、代码对象ID、所属文件名和firstlineno,而剩下就只有字节码的反汇编了,对于其他xasm所需的信息都没有明显地列出。
因此,该工具的主要功能即通过字节码反汇编提取/推断出Constants、Names、Varnames、Positional arguments、Free variables和Cell variables信息

信息提取

Constants、Names和Varnames

这三个元组的提取相对简单,通过Python自带的opcode可以拿到使用这些元组索引的字节码:

不过opcode模块只能获取当前运行的Python版本的信息,而有些时候字节码文本是不知道具体版本的,需要跨版本爆破,所以这里采用xdis(https://github.com/rocky/python-xdis)获取跨版本的opcode信息,在遍历字节码的过程中直接匹配提取即可:
# 匹配形同"LOAD_CONST      1 (3)"的反汇编行PTN_ARG = r"([A-Z_]+)\s+(\d+)\s+\((.+)\)" 
for i in range(len(asm)): # 遍历字节码 reobj = re.search(PTN_ARG, asm[i]) if reobj is not None: opcode, idx, arg = reobj.groups() idx = int(idx) if op.opmap[opcode] in op.hasconst: co[CONSTS].update({idx: arg}) elif op.opmap[opcode] in op.hasname: co[NAMES].update({idx: arg}) elif op.opmap[opcode] in op.haslocal: co[VARNAMES].update({idx: arg})

Positional arguments

对于位置参数的识别主要包括两个部分:参数的识别,位置参数和关键字参数的区分。Varnames中按顺序依次包含三种变量名:位置参数、关键字参数和函数中新定义的局部变量(下文中简称局部变量)。所以可以先将Varnames中的参数识别出来,再通过定义和调用函数的字节码区分出关键字参数,剩下的就是位置参数了。
函数中的参数一般是外部传值进来的,不会像局部变量那样在使用之前一定会有STORE,所以我们可以在遍历的时候加一个判断,判断这个局部变量在使用时有没有STORE过,如果没有那说明很大概率就是函数参数,由于在Varnames中两种参数一定在局部变量前,所以记录这样检测出来的索引最大值即可:
for i in range(len(asm)):    reobj = re.search(PTN_ARG, asm[i])    if reobj is not None:        opcode, idx, arg = reobj.groups()        idx = int(idx)        # ...        elif op.opmap[opcode] in op.haslocal:            co[VARNAMES].update({idx: arg})            if "STORE" in opcode:                varState.append(idx)            elif idx not in varState: # 使用时检查该变量是否存储过                co[ARGMAX] = max(co[ARGMAX], idx)
同时为了提高推断的准确度,也会记录局部变量的索引最小值,已赋值的变量很大概率是局部变量(如果函数中重新赋值了参数,那相当于参数原本的值被覆盖了,此时可以看作是局部变量)。
co[LOCMIN] = min(varState) if varState else -1
正常情况下,参数索引最大值ARGMAX与局部变量索引最小值LOCMIN相差1(Varnames中参数和局部变量依次排列)。但如果参数或局部变量没有在函数中使用过,那么会有一部分索引对应的数据无法提取,也就无法精准地确定出参数个数,只能通过取max(ARGMAX, LOCMIN-1)来推断。值得注意的是,如果函数的参数直接被传入闭包中(而没有在函数中进行任何的调用),也会导致Varnames中参数索引对应的数据缺失。一般的Python程序也不会创建无用变量,所以此处推断的参数个数正常情况下还是很准的;且至于缺失的数据,只能用随机名暂代,可以在反编译后人工纠正。
参数的个数获取以后,接下来是关键字参数的区分。关键字参数会在两个地方出现:
  1. 如果关键字参数有设置默认值,那么在MAKE_FUNCTION时标志位会设置0x02位:

    在运行栈中,TOS是函数的限定名称,TOS1是函数体的常量,TOS2开始就是标志位标识的常量,顺序为0x08的自由变量元组(下文分辨freevars和cellvars时同理)、0x04的标注字典、0x02的关键字参数默认值字典和0x01的其他参数默认元组。

  2. 没有设置默认值的关键字参数,调用时一定需要指明变量名,所以可以寻找该函数被调用时的字节码,找到 CALL_FUNCTION_KW前面指定的关键字参数名:

如下是一个关键字参数的函数示例:
def f(a, b: int, h: int, i=9, *, c: str = "1", f, g=11):    # ...    return
查看dis反汇编,MAKE_FUNCTION标志位为7,即被设置了0x04、0x02、0x01。那就是往上数三个栈元素,偏移80的LOAD_CONST是TOS,偏移78的LOAD_CONST是TOS1,我们需要的关键字参数默认值字典是TOS3(设置0x04的标注字典在TOS2)。在这个默认值字典中,最后一次LOAD_CONST是涉及的关键字变量名,这里可以获得一部分关键字参数cg

该函数被调用时,CALL_FUNCTION_KW上方的元组就是关键字参数名,这里可以获得剩下的关键字参数fc重复):

通过这种方法,我们可以记录函数的关键字参数,把他们的个数从参数个数中减去即可:

argidx = max(co[ARGMAX], co[LOCMIN] - 1)if fn in self.fkwDict.keys():    # ...    argidx -= len(self.fkwDict[fn])co[POSARGS] = argidx

Free variables和Cell variables

在字节码中cellvars和freevars位于同一索引列表(该索引列表为cellvars+freevars拼接而成),可以使用xdis中对应版本opcode的hasfree属性筛选出所有的freevars和cellvars:

for i in range(len(asm)):    reobj = re.search(PTN_ARG, asm[i])    if reobj is not


    
 None:        opcode, idx, arg = reobj.groups()        idx = int(idx)        # ...        elif op.opmap[opcode] in op.hasfree:            co[CELLVARS].update({idx: arg}) # cellvars and freevars

freevars是传进闭包函数中供其使用的外部变量,在MAKE_FUNCTION时会以元组的形式列出:

因此只要遍历到MAKE_FUNCTION的标志位设置了0x08位,那么在TOS2就是组成了freevars的元组,例如这里的(b2, b3, a3, c)是函数ccc的freevars。

freevars确定以后,就可以将其从cellvars中区分出来:
if fn in self.fvDict.keys():    idx_list = [next(k for k, v in co[CELLVARS].items() if v == fv) for fv in self.fvDict[fn]]    idx = min(idx_list)    for k, v in list(co[CELLVARS].items()):        if k >= idx:            co[FREEVARS][k-idx] = v            del co[CELLVARS][k]

处理字节码

xasm的字节码格式同dis的相比有一些不同,主要是把同名的函数加了ID做区分(这也导致反编译以后程序可能不能正常运行),去除每行前的偏移值,跳转的">>"符号也被去除,其余差别不影响后续的汇编和反编译,这里简单调整即可:
def _adjust_asm(self, asm):    def repl(o):        name, addr = o.groups()        s = list(o.group())        if addr in self.funcMap.keys():            assert name == self.funcMap[addr][0]            name = self.funcMap[addr][1]            ib, ie = [t[1]-t[0] for t in zip(o.regs[0], o.regs[1])]            s[ib:ie] = name        return ''.join(s)    newAsm = asm.replace(">>", "  ")    newAsm = re.sub(PTN_CO, repl, newAsm)    newAsm = re.sub(PTN_LNO, lambda o: f"\n{o.group(1)}:\n", newAsm)    newAsm = re.sub(PTN_BOFF, "\n", newAsm)    return newAsm.strip("\n")

汇编

xasm工具做的是将这些信息整合起来,最后生成一个CodeType:

但xasm优秀的地方在于其版本之间的兼容做得非常好,例如Python不同版本之间的CodeType属性不同,如果自己写只能这样,用各个版本的opcode生成对应版本的版本信息,在运行时再读取:
try:    with open('version_{}_{}_info.txt'.format(_v[0], _v[1]), 'r') as f:        data = f.read().strip()    def _get_info():        for l in data.split('\n'):            yield l    info = _get_info()    self.argnames = literal_eval(next(info))    attrs = ['hascompare', 'hasconst', 'hasfree', 'hasjabs', 'hasjrel', 'haslocal', 'hasname', 'hasnargs', 'HAVE_ARGUMENT', 'opmap']    for x in attrs:        setattr(self, x, literal_eval(next(info)))    self.stackeffects = literal_eval(next(info))    return Trueexcept FileNotFoundError:    print("[-] Cannot find 'version_{}_{}_info.txt', parsing exits.".format(_v[0], _v[1]))    return False
然后手动生成:

(这是该工具的旧版本)版本之间的兼容非常痛苦,还有数不清的bug。
决定重启这个项目的原因也是因为发现了uncompyle6的作者R. Bernstein的仓库中有这么个小汇编器,但是只支持固定的输入格式,所以对旧版本的手撕字节码工具进行了重构,调用了xasm的轮子,专注信息的提取即可。

例题

这里拿L3HCTF上的一道字节码题目DAG做例子:

这是一个4400+的字节码文本(虽然前面有不少重复部分),很显然是dis反汇编出来的。
由于中间偏移值可以看到有被人为删除的痕迹(64-110),偏移值一般是连续的:

手动添加相反效果的两条字节码补全:(decompyle3反编译时无法识别NOP,所以退而求其次用其他的补,总之把缺的偏移补全就行)

然后使用这个工具生成pyc并使用反编译工具反编译:

恢复结果:
# decompyle3 version 3.9.1# Python bytecode version base 3.8.0 (3413)# Decompiled from: Python 3.11.4 (main, Jan  5 2024, 15:17:54) [Clang 17.0.6 ]# Embedded file name: unknown# Compiled at: 2024-05-07 15:51:53import random
def func1(lss, i, j): if arr[i * len(lss) + j] != -1L: return arr[i * len(lss) + j] s1, s2 = list(lss[i]), list(lss[j]) l1, l2 = len(s1), len(s2) flag = True n = 0L if l1 - l2 == 1L: for m in range(l1): if s1[m] != s2[n]: if flag: flag = False else: arr[i * len(lss) + j] = 0L return arr[i * len(lss) + j] else: n += 1L if n == l2: break
else: arr[i * len(lss) + j] = 0L return arr[i * len(lss) + j] arr[i * len(lss) + j] = 1L return 1L

def abc(lss, i): if abcarray[i] > 0L: return abcarray[i] m = 1L for (index, word) in enumerate(lss): if func1(lss, i, index) == 1L: m = max(m, abc(lss, index) + 1L) abcarray[i] = m return m

def solution(lss): global abcarray global arr abcarray = [ -1L] * len(lss) arr = [ -1L] * (len(lss) * len(lss)) ans = 1L for i in range(len(lss)): ans = max(ans, abc(lss, i))
return ans

def func2(n): (a, b) = (1L, 1L) for i in range(n - 1L): a, b = b, a + b
return a

def calc(nums): num1, num2, num3 = nums[0L], nums[1L], nums[2L] num1 = 2023L + (num1 & 15L) - (num1 & 240L) num2 = func2(num2 + 7L) random.seed(num3) flag = f"{num1}{num2}{num3}{random.gauss(num2, 0.2)}" flag = flag.replace(".", "x") print("flag=", flag) return flag

def encode(s): ret = [] ls = list(s) for i in range(0L, len(ls), 2L): num1 = ord(ls[i]) num2 = ord(ls[i + 1L]) numa = (num1 & 248L) >> 3L numb = (num1 & 7L) << 3L | (num2 & 240L) >> 4L numc = num2 & 15L ret = ret + [numa, numb, numc]
return ret

if __name__ == "__main__": ### 原文中缺失的部分 assert encode(str1) == [12L, 22L, 1L] assert encode(str2) == [12L, 14L, 2L] assert encode(str3) == [12L, 22L, 3L] assert encode(str4) == [12L, 30L, 2L] assert encode(str5) == [12L,22L,4L,12L,30L,1L] assert encode(str6) == [12L,22L,1L,12L,30L,4L] assert encode(str7) == [12L,22L,2L,12L,22L,2L] assert encode(str8) == [12L,14L,3L,12L,38L,2L] assert num1 == solution(["a",str1,str2,str3,str4,"bda",str5,str6,str7,str8,"bcdef","aabcc","acbac","bdcaa","bbbbcc","babccc","abaccc"]) assert num2 == solution(["klmnowx","abcdefgiklmno","fgij","bcfghijklmno","fgjpqrst","uy","abceklmnouvw","pqrstuwy","fghijlno","mnouvwxy","klmnopqt","klmnopqrstuy","aeuvw","muvw","abcdeklmnow","fhijpqrst","mpqrst","klmnoprt","fghijklno","abcdelmo","klnuvwxy","klmnopst","abcdeklmnov","fghj","luvwxy","ghklmnopqrst","pqrstwx","abcdklmno","cdefghij","pqrs","efghijklmno","fghjklmno","adeklmno","rs","kuvwxy","ghij","befghijklmno","ln","hijklmnopqrst","ghpqrst","fgiklmnopqrst","pqrtuvwxy","pqrsty","jklmnopqrst","lnouvwxy","klmnoqsuvwxy","abcdeghklmno","fi","fghijlnpqrst","abdklmnouvw","uwx","abcdekln","klmno","abcdekn","abcdemuvw","pqs","fghijpqt","klmnopqrstuw","n","nopqrstuvwxy","abcdefghj","fghiklmnopqrst","klmnorst","abcdemnouvw","fgh","pqt" ,"abfghij","o","nouvw","abcdklmnouvw","abeklmno","abcden","klmnopqrstwxy","q","fghijklmnoprt","klmnovx","abceuvw","klmnopsuvwxy","hj","abcdefgh","fhjklmno","klmnoquvwxy","wxy","klmnopqrstuvwy","kln","abcdegklmno","mno","gklmno","klnouvw","fghijklmnoqr","fghijpqrst","mnuvwxy","ghipqrst","klmnoqrtuvwxy","acdfghij","uwy","fghjklmnopqrst","mnpqrstuvwxy","abcdeknouvw","abcdefghijklmno","klmnorsuvwxy","abcdeh","klmnost","iklmnopqrst","abcdegijklmno","fghijklmopqrst","fghijklmnors","pqrstux","abcdefghijlm","abcdem","klmn","opqrst","ghjklmnopqrst","cdfghij","kluvwxy","ceklmno","abcdeghijklmno","lmo","bklmno","fghijs","cdeklmnouvw","abcdeknuvw","cdklmnouvw","abcdeklmnovw","klmnopr","fghijklmnopqrst","klmnopqtuvwxy","abcdefhijklmno","abcdeuv","abcdefhklmno","x","abcdeouvw","fjklmno","a","klmnopqrstuv","abdklmno","fghijlm","bcefghijklmno","quvwxy","fghi","klmnopqrstuwx","r","klmnuvw","kn","abcdeklmn","abcdeklmno","ps","klmnoqrt","pstuvwxy","klmnopqrsty","lmn","d","abcdefghijmo","fghijmnopqrst","ghiklmno","mouvwxy","abcdeghj","fghijklmnopr","kmnouvwxy","fghijklmnopqst","klmnox","nouvwxy","adefghijklmno","kmo","klmnovy","klmnopqrstuvwxy","cde","y","klmnouy","fgklmnopqrst","nuvwxy","kluvw","abcdefghijkno","abcdekl","fghijno","ceuvw","abcdelo","bcdklmno","gij","abcdeijklmno","klmnopqrt","abcdeklm","pqruvwxy","klnuvw","fijklmno","knpqrstuvwxy","fghijklmnor","ace","abcdekluvw","deklmnouvw","lpqrstuvwxy","abcdefhiklmno","fijpqrst","klmnopqrstvwy","mn","kmpqrst","ipqrst","fghijkmnpqrst","uvxy","bklmnouvw","fghijkmnopqrst","fghijklnopqrst","kopqrstuvwxy","pqrstuwxy","abdeuvw","acefghij","jklmno","k","fghijqs","abcdefghijno","fghijklmnort","adeuvw","vwx",0L,"hi","abcdefghijm","nuvw","fklmnopqrst","abcdehklmno","fghijklmnoqrt","klmnoruvwxy","abcdemnuvw","klmnovw","klmnopqrstvw","klmnoqtuvwxy","klmnoy","wx","ouvwxy","lmopqrst","fghjpqrst","lnuvwxy","vy","abdfghijklmno","kmnouvw","uvy","klmnoqst","klmnort","pqrstuxy","qs","lopqrstuvwxy","mnouvw","abdeklmno","abcdelnouvw","pruvwxy","qrsuvwxy","cklmno","bc","acdfghijklmno","j","fghijpqs","fghijknopqrst","fgijklmno","fghijnopqrst","mpqrstuvwxy" 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assert num3 == solution(["ysvydhncudvxqgub","jxomzgqmpccovmyy","hxiwwqdowwbdzrql","zqfykhyqgxpuedhx","vhszanyizlocrcta","dthywqimclejyrxf","pxvnsacefcaeqwpn","eibroystpzgkhwkt","efioczniyhzlkgxx","jbafyifjrdsevjlt","noggsbrxuzxxxpnv","usxugdobkxyvebgp" 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,"qspowcqalsukqhhy","wasrmlhgjgalcbrb","dglyfamnfpqkmteh","xgpvsclrqskbjnao","iawgyqoqnmxmwtrk"]) s = calc([num1, num2, num3])
# okay decompiling xasm_bytecode.pyc
恢复结果跟官方的出题源码(https://hust-l3hsec.feishu.cn/docx/MZ8SdwSoPo3cBTxOxbGcuUBun4c#CHFYdpr8roKZzcxfBdGc2HdtnBZ)相比已经很相似了,除了原代码中被删除的flag相关的常量赋值外近乎一摸一样。

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